2020, Volume 4
2019, Volume 3
2018, Volume 2
2017, Volume 1

Volume 3, Issue 1, June 2019, Page: 16-22
A Statistical Analysis of the Distribution of the Chloride Threshold with Relation to Steel-concrete Interface
Amit Kenny, Department of Civil Engineering, Shamoon College of Engineering, Ashdod, Israel
Amnon Katz, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel
Received: Aug. 13, 2019;       Accepted: Aug. 30, 2019;       Published: Sep. 18, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajcbm.20190301.13      View  443      Downloads  84
A wide variation of chloride thresholds can be found in the literature. Possible causes for this variation, which were mentioned are: method of threshold determination, cement chemistry, and concrete microstructure. Regardless of the reasons for these variations, a probabilistic method can be used to ensure the durability of reinforced concrete structures for a specific period. A probabilistic method gives a threshold for design for given required confidence. A former research analyzed the micro-structure of concrete around steel rebar, by means of BSE automated image analysis, and the chloride threshold. The research found a statistical significant correlation between the maximal distance of steel from the closest concrete solid on the rebar perimeter and the chloride threshold. Theory of statistics of extreme values state, that the distribution of maxima data is bonded to be general extreme value distribution (GEVD). Re-analysis of the data from the abovementioned research found that as expected from the theory of statistics, the maximum steel-concrete distance distributed according to GEVD. Therefore, since the chloride threshold depends on the steel-concrete distance, its distribution is bonded to the GEVD. The analysis in this paper show that the received chloride threshold is GEVD as the theory predicted. From the theoretical point of view, GEVD may be the distribution of many other corrosion processes. The recognition of GEVD as the correct distribution for describing corrosion initiation in reinforced concrete (RC) structures, can enable more accurate planning for corrosion protection.
Reinforced Concrete, Probabilistic Design, Chloride Threshold, Statistical Analysis, Corrosion
To cite this article
Amit Kenny, Amnon Katz, A Statistical Analysis of the Distribution of the Chloride Threshold with Relation to Steel-concrete Interface, American Journal of Construction and Building Materials. Vol. 3, No. 1, 2019, pp. 16-22. doi: 10.11648/j.ajcbm.20190301.13
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Schiessl, P.; Raupach, M., "Influence of concrete composition and microclimate on the critical chloride content in concrete," in Corrosion of Reinforcement in Concrete, London, Elsevier Applied Science, 1990, pp. 49-58.
M. Ehlen, "Life-365 Service Life Prediction Model and Computer Program for Predicting the Service Life and Life-Cycle Cost of Reinforced Concrete Exposed to Chlorides," Concrete Corrosion Inhibitors Association, the National Ready Mix Concrete Association, the Slag Cement Association, and the Silica Fume Association, 2009.
Kenny, The micro structure of concrete around embedded steel influence on the chloride threshold for chloride induced corrosion, Haifa: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 2012.
M. Alonso and M. Sanchez, "Analysis of the variability of chloride threshold values in the literature," Materials and Corrosion, vol. 60, no. 8, p. 631-637, 2009.
L. Bertolini, F. Bolzoni, T. Pastore and P. Pedeferri, in Corrosion of Reinforcement in, Cambridge, SCI, 1996, p. 389.
C. Alonso, M. Castellote and C. Andrade, "Chloride threshold dependence of pitting potential of reinforcements," Electrochimica Acta, vol. 47, no. 21, 2002.
S. S. Y. O. B. Jang, "Experimental investigation of the threshold chloride concentration for corrosion initiation in reinforced concrete structures," Magazine of Concrete Research, vol. 55, no. 2, 2003.
Andrade, C.; Keddam, M.; Novoa, X. R.; Perez, M. C.; Rangel, C. M.; Takenouti, H., "Electrochemical behavior of steel rebars in concrete: influence of environmental factors and cement chemistry," Electrochemica Acta, vol. 46, no. 24-25, pp. 3905-3912, 2001.
Glass, G. K.; Reddy; B., "The Influence of the Steel Concrete Interface on the Risk of Chloride Induced Corrosion Initiation," Corrosion of Steel in Reinforced Concrete Structures, COST 521, Final Workshop, pp. 227-232, 18-19 February 2002.
T. Vidal, A. Castel and R. Francois, "Corrosion process and structural performance of a 17 year old reinforced concrete beam stored in chloride environment," Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 37, no. 11, pp. 1551-1561, 2007.
J. Galvele, "Transport processes and the mechanism of pitting of metals," Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 123, no. 4, pp. 464-474, 1976.
Alonso, C.; Andrade, C.; Rodriguez, J.; Diez, J. M., "Factors controlling cracking of concrete affected by reinforcement corrosion," Materials and Structures/Materiaux et Constructions, vol. 31, no. 211, pp. 435-441, 1996.
Kenny, Amit; Katz, Amnon, "Statistical relationship between mix properties and the interfacial transition zone around embedded rebar, " Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 60, pp. 82-91, 2015.
C.-h. LU, W.-l. JIN and R.-g. LIU, "Probabilistic Lifetime Assessment of Marine Reinforced Concrete with Steel," Chinese Ocean Engineering, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 305-318, 2011.
F. Lollini, E. Redaelli and L. Bertolini, "Analysis of the parameters affecting probabilistic predictions of initiation time for carbonation‐induced corrosion of reinforced concrete structures, " Materials and Corrosion, vol. 63, no. 12, pp. 1059-1068, 2012.
R. Polder, "Critical chloride content for reinforced concrete and its relationship to concrete resistivity, " Materials and Corrosion, vol. 60, no. 8, p. 623—630.
X. S. W. H. H. B. L. Hu Yu, "Laboratory investigation of reinforcement corrosion initiation and chloride threshold content for self-compacting concrete," Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 40, no. 10, pp. 1507-1516, 2010.
S. Coles, An Introduction to Statistical Modeling of Extreme Values, Verlag London Berlin Heidelberg: Springer, 2001.
S. N. Kotz, Extreme Value Distributions: theory and applications, London: Imperial College Press, 2000.
Darmawan, M. S; Stewart, M. G., "Effect of pitting corrosion on capacity of prestressing wires," Magazine of Concrete Research, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 131-139, 2007.
Alarcon-Ruiz, L. A.; Brocato, M. B., "Size effect in intrinsic permeability measurements," in Conference of American Nuclear Society - International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants, 2005.
Liang, M.-T.; Lan, J.-J., "Reliability analysis of an existing reinforced concrete wharf laden in a chloride environment," Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers, Transactions of the Chinese Institute of Engineers, Series A/Chung-kuo Kung Ch'eng Hsuch K'an, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 647-658, 2003.
Ann, K. Y.; Song, H.-W., "Chloride threshold level for corrosion of steel in concrete," Corrosion Science, vol. 49, pp. 4113-4133, 2007.
Kenny and A. Katz, "Characterization of the interfacial transition zone around steel rebar by means of the mean shift method," Materials and Structures/Materiaux Et Constructions, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 639-652, 2012.
T. Luping and J. Gulikers, "On the mathematics of time-dependent apparent chloride diffusion coefficient in concrete," Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 37, pp. 589-5958, 2007.
Browse journals by subject